# Square is a monad join of a function

**How do you implement square (or double) using Monads?**

Quite simple: Use the monad instance of a function and then `join` on a function that returns a function.

How on earth does that work?

You know the signature of Monad join.

`join :: Monad f => f (f a) -> f a`

join ffa = ffa >>= id

Consider `data Optional a = Full a | Empty`

has a monad instance. This implies:

`>> join (Full (Full 1))`

Full 1

In this case,`f`

is `Optional`

, and `ffa`

is `Full (Full 1)`

When you replace `Optional`

to be a function `f: t -> a`

, then `ffa`

is `f: t -> ( t -> a )`

.

As an example :

` >> ffa = \x -> (\y -> x * y)`

>> ffa 2 3

6

>>

`ffa = \x -> (\y -> x * y))`

is same as `ffa = (*)`

Thinking along the same lines, calling `join`

on `ffa`

to return `fa`

means converting `t-> (t -> a)`

to `t -> a`

Let’s do that:

`>> :type (join (*))`

(join ffa) :: Num a => a -> a

`join (*)`

returns a function `Int -> Int`

effectively.

`>> join (*) 10`

100

This implies:

`>> square = join (*)`

>> double = join (+)

Yea, that was more of a fun. But you can sort of guess that monad instance of a function `(->) t`

involves passing the same argument twice to a binary function. I will explain this blog with some `Scala`

later , although I found it a little less intuitive considering I cannot write `join(*)`

or `(*).join`

after the required imports from cats/scalaz. But it will still be a good exercise.